The plant cell-tissue culture, monoclonal antibodies production and manipulation of nucleic acids form these major stages of pathological solutions. Various techniques have been developed over several years to assist plant cell-tissue culture. Physiological and biochemical manipulations are also carried out to construct plant pathology. Various monoclonal antibodies from plants are more specific and sensitive as compared to polyclonal antibodies. They are effective in disease diagnosis, in identifying pathogens, and in exploring the physiology of host-parasite relations.
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